- In 2 Hijrih the command was given to face the Ka’bah (Masjid-e-Haram, Makkah), instead of facing Baitul Maqsad during Prayer (Salaah).
- Sariyyah or Expedition of Abdullah bin Jahsh and the first booty in Islam took place in the same year 2 Hijrih.
- The most significant battle of Badar fought in the same year on the 17th Ramadhaan, 2 Hijrih. Muslims were 313 while Non-muslims Quraish were 1000. Abu Jahal was killed in this battle by Mu’aaz and Mu’awwiz two ansaari youngsters. 70 of the disbelievers were killed and 70 were taken captive. Only 14 Sahabaah were martyred. 6 were from muhajireen and 8 from ansaar.
- Prophet’s daughter Sayyidah Ruqayya passed away.
- Eid Salaah was performed for the first time.
- The command of Fasting in Ramadhan and Zakah was given in this year.
- Sadqa-tul-Fitr, the Salaah of Eid-ul-Adha and Qurbani were all make wajib in this year.
- In Zul-Hijjah Sayyidah Fatima was married to Sayyad Ali.
- The battle of Uhud took place on 7th Shawaal 3 Hijrih. The army of disbelievers was three thousand while muslims were thousand and Adbullah bin Ubayy and three hundred of his followers deserted the muslims and returned to Madinah. The muslim army was left with only seven hundred soldiers.Twenty two or twenty three disbelievers were killed and seventy muslims martyred in this battle.
- Prophet married Sayyidah Hafsah and Sayyidah Zaynub.
- Wine was made Haraam
- Sayyidina Hasan was born
- The battle of Ghatafaan took place in Rabi-ul-Awwal. Du’thoor bin Haarith Muhaaribi marched with an army of four hundred and fifty soldiers to attack Madinah. Prophet and his companions came out of Madinah to confront him but they fled out of fear for the muslims and hid in the mountains tops.
- Incident of Bir-e-Ma’oonah happened in which a group of Prophet’s companions were martyred by the tribes of A’amir, Ri’l, Zakwaan and U’sayya. Planned by Abu Bara A’mir misled Prophet into believing that if a group of companions were sent to Najd to preach Islam. Prophet Muhammad PBUH sent a group of companiions to Najd in the month of Safar 4 Hijrih. This group of companions consisted of many Ulama and Quraa.
- The birth of Sayyidina Hussain
- Prophet married Sayyidah Umme Salmah
- Prophet instructed Sayyidina Zaid bin Thabit to learn the Jewish language (Hebrew)
Battle of Khandaq (trench) or Battle of Ahzaab (groups) took place in Zil-Qa`dah 5 A.H. All the groups (Quraish of Makkah, the Jews and Munafiqeen (Hypocrites)) gathered their forces and decided to attack Madinah. An army of ten thousand fierce warriors, which later doubled, marched towards Madinah to destroy the Muslims.
Sayyidina Salmaan Farsi suggested to make trenches around the city of Madinah. Then Prophet Muhammad PBUH together with three thousand companions prepared to dig these trenches which was 5 metres wide and 5 metres deep and about 8 kilometres long. It took the 6 days to complete digging it.
The disbelievers placed Madinah under siege for almost fifteen days. The Banu Quraizah, whom the Muslims feared, sided with the disbelievers and this increased their number.
Prophet missed his four prayers (Salaah) on one day when disbelievers began throwing stones and shooting arrows at the muslims. Allah sent a hurricane against the disbelievers that it uprooted their tents from the ground and overturned their pots that were over the blazing fire.
Banu Quraizah joined the disbelievers in the battle of trench and broke their agreement with Prophet, So after the battle muslims attacked them. They locked themselves in their fort for twenty-five days.
- In the beginning of Zil-Qa’dah 6 A.H, Prophet Muhammad PBUH tied ihram for Umrah and set out towards Makkah with a large group of 1400 companions. Prophet camped at Hudaybiyyah (name of a well about 25.5km from Makkah) because disbelievers of Makkah didnot allow muslims to perform Umrah. Prophet sent Sayyidina Uthmaan to Makka to negociate with disbelievers but rumour spread that disbelievers killed Sayyidina Uthmaan then Prophet took a pledge (Bayt) for Jihad under an acacia tree, which is called Bay’at-ru-Ridhwaan. Later on they learnt that this was only a rumour. The muslims and disbelievers agreed to sign a treaty. Allah releaved Surah Fatah, wherein this treaty was termed as an open victory.
- Sayyidina Khalid bin Waleed and A’mr bin A’as accepted Islaam.
- Prophet sent letters to the kings of the world to preach and describe the message of Islam. A’mr bin Umayya was sent to the king of Ethiopia (Najashi, Ashumah). Dihya kalbi was sent to the emperor rome (Hiraql, Hercules), Abdullah bin Hudhayfah was sent to the leader of Persia (Kisrah), Haatib bin Abi Balta’a was sent to the leader of Egypt (Maqowqas), A’mr bin A’as was sent to the leader of Oman.
- When Banu Nadheer was banished from Madinah because they has broken their treaty with muslims, they settled in Khaibar but still encouraging neighbouring tribes to fight against muslims. So in Muharram or Jumadul-Ula Prophet with his six hundred companions left for Khaibar. Allah grant the muslims victory and they gained control over all the forts of the Jews. Sayyidinah Ali played a great role in this Jihad.
- Prophet performed Umrah, which was missed the previous year when the treaty of Hudaybiyya was signed.
- Prophet married Sayyidah Maymoonah.
- Prophet sent Sayyidina Harith bin U’mair to Shurahbeel, the governor of Busrah with the invitation of Islam. Shurahbeel reacted with aggression and killed Sayyidina Harith bin U’mair. So, in 8 A.H Prophet sent an army of three thousand to confront Shurahbeel. Shurahbeel prepared an army of nearly one hundred and fifty thousand soldiers. 3 muslims against 150 disbelievers. This battle took place at Muta, a place in Shaam (Syria) 51.5km from Baitul Maqsid and close to the city of Balqaan. Three leaders of muslims (Sayyidinah Zaid bin Haritha, Sayyidina Ja’far, and Sayyidinah Abdullah bin Rawaha) martyred then muslims gained victory under commanment of Sayyidina Khalid bin Waleed.
- Prophet Muhammad PBUH began preparing for Jihad, on 3rd Ramadhan 8 A.H after A’sr Prophet with an army of ten thousand left Madinah towards Makkah. Allah gave command over Makkah without fight and On Friday, 20th Ramadhan, Prophet made Tawaaf of the Ka’bah and broke all the idols placed inside Ka’bah. Prophet, who was a mercy unto mankind addressed to disbelievers of Makkah as ” Today you all are free. There is no blame on you”. Prophet remained in Makkah for fifteen days. Thereafter, returend to Madinah and appointed Sayyidinah I’tab bin Usayd as the governor of Makkah.
- After the conquest of Makkah, the Arabs began entering into Islam in large numbers but two Arab tribes (Hawaazin and Thaqeef) could not tolerate the rise of Islam and prepared to wage war against the muslims and set out towards Makkah. Prophet gathered twelve thousand companions to fight them. On the 6th Sawaal this army left Makkah and when they reached the valley of Hunain the enemy attached the muslims from all directions. In initial stage muslims faced defeat but later on muslims gained victory. Only four muslims martyred whereas more than seventy disbelievers were killed. Muslims took possession of all their belongings among which twenty four thousand camels, more than forty thousand goats and four thousand awqiya (490 kgs).
- After the Banu Hawaazin and Thaqeef were defeated in Hunain they took protection in the fort of Taaif. Prophet followed them and approximately eighteen days they laid seige to the fort. Then Prophet left and camped at Ji’rranah and handedover persons who were captured at Hunain on the request of people of Taaif. After returning to Madinah, a delegation from Taaif came to Madinah and accepted Islam.
- Thereafter, Prophet performed Umrah from Ji’rranah and returned to Madinah on the 6th Zul-Qa’dah 8 A.H.
- After returning from Taaif, Prophet remained in Madinah until the middle of 9 A.H. Prophet began preparation for Jihad as he was informed that Hiraql (Hercules) was preparing an army at Tabuk to attack the muslims after their defeat in Muta. In Rajab, Prophet left Madinah for Tabuk with twenty thousand companions. Hiraql fled from Tabuk and no battle was fought. Muslim returned after staying in Tabuk for fifteen to twenty days. This was the last battle that Prophet Muhammad fought. Prophet returned to Madinah in Ramadhan 9 A.H.
- After returning from Tabuk, Prophet appointed Sayyidina Abu Bakr as the leader of Hajj and sent him to Makkah.
- Prophet left for Hajj on the 25th Zul-Qa’dah 10 A.H. and more than one hundred thousand companions joined him. Prophet tied ihram from Zul-Hulaifah, six miles from Madinah. They, reached Makkah on Saturday, 4th Zil-Hijjah. On the 9th Zul-Hijjah after reaching Arafaat, Prophet delivered a very inspiring Khutbah (Speech) which was full of advice and wisdom. After performing Hajj, Prophet remained in Makkah for few days and thereafter returned to Madinah.
- After returning from Makkah, Prophet prepared an army on the 26th Safar 11 A.H. to fight the Romans. Amongst the soldiers were many leading companions like Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina Umar, Sayyidina Abu U’baidah bin Jarrah and Prophet appointed Sayyidina Usama as the ameer (leader) of this army. This was the last army that Prophet arranged himself. This army had not yet left Madinah when Prophet fell ill. Prophet Muhammad PBUH thereafter passed away and Sayyidinah Abu Bakr dispatched this army.
- On 28th Safar 11 A.H. Prophet visited Jannatul Baqee where he made dua for the inmates of the graves. After returning home, he experienced a headache and from then onwards had a fever, which lasted for thirteen days. In this condition Prophet left this world.
- On Monday the 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal, after the Zuhr Salaah, Prophet left this worldly abode and went to meet his creator, Allah.
- Prophet was buried after two days, on Wednesday, at the time of sehri (early down). Prophet was sixty-three years old at the time of his demise.